Cephalopoda | Teuthida
Turgeon, D.D., J.F. Quinn Jr., A.E. Bogan, E.V. Coan, F.G. Hochberg, W.G. Lyons, P.M. Mikkelsen, R.J. Neves, C.F.E. Roper, G. Rosenberg, B. Roth, A. Scheltema, F.G. Thompson, M. Vecchione and J.D. Willams. 1998. (Ref. 1667)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 10.5 cm ML male/unsexed; (Ref. 97142)
Pelagic; depth range 1 - 3500 m (Ref. 97142)
Climate / Range
Circumglobal. Tropical, subtropical, and temperate..
Tail length an additional 15.5 cm. Depth range based on depths of capture in open nets; 1 individual captured at 3,500 m (Ref. 97142). Minimum depth from Ref. 110525. Males are fully mature at 10.5 cm mantle length; females clearly developing but immature at 8.5 cm mantle length, with paired nidamental glands. Depths of capture in open nets range from 300 to 500 m at night (1 at 3,500 m) and 800 to 2,500 m during daytime: this clearly is a meso- to bathypelagic species. Specimens are reported as prey of lancetfish, blue shark and sperm whale (Ref. 97142). Members of the class Cephalopoda are gonochoric. Male and female adults usually die shortly after spawning and brooding, respectively. Mating behavior: Males perform various displays to attract potential females for copulation. During copulation, male grasp the female and inserts the hectocotylus into the female's mantle cavity where fertilization usually occurs. Life cycle: Embryos hatch into planktonic stage and live for some time before they grow larger and take up a benthic existence as adults (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models