Demospongiae | Dictyoceratida
Collin, R., M.C. Díaz, J. Norenburg, R.M. Rocha, J.A. Sánchez, M. Schulze, A. Schwartz and A. Valdés. 2005. (Ref. 415)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 0.5 cm H male/unsexed; (Ref. 415)
Reef-associated; brackish; depth range 1 - 17 m (Ref. 108813)
Climate / Range
Western Atlantic: Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico.
Massive-globular with large sharp conules: up to 0.5 cm high; regularly spaced up to 1.3 cm apart. Membrane-bearing oscules: 0.2 - 1.5 cm wide; usually grouped onto a depression on top of the sponge. Dark gray to black externally, tan internally. Tough very hard to cut (Ref. 415). Morphology: fan, lobate, massive or spherical (Ref. 81728). Color often paler near the base, rarely almost white with. Black oscules; small specimens have only one oscule (Ref. 85482).
Common on shallow reefs, seagrass beds (Ref. 415) and hard bottoms. Also found in mangroves (Ref. 86836). Occasionally on deeper muddy sand bottoms. Often emits a strong, sulfurous pungent scent when removed from the water (Ref. 85482). In Belize, it was found in a submarine cave near Columbus Cay (Ref. 87209). Members of the class Demospongiae are hermaphroditic. Life cycle: The zygote develops into parenchymella larva (free-swimming) before settling down on a substrate where it grows into a young sponge (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
| FisheriesWiki |
Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models
Low vulnerability (10 of 100)