Demospongiae | Dictyoceratida
Environment / Climate / Range
Sessile; brackish; depth range 1 - 100 m (Ref. 108813). Tropical; 25°C - 33°C (Ref. 86836)
Western Atlantic: Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 0.2 cm H male/unsexed; (Ref. 415)
Common on mangroves (Ref. 415). Massive forms usually found on reefs; while branching and more lobate forms inhabit quieter shallow inshore hard bottoms, sediment and seagrass beds (Ref. 85482). Members of the class Demospongiae are hermaphroditic. Life cycle: The zygote develops into parenchymella larva (free-swimming) before settling down on a substrate where it grows into a young sponge (Ref. 833).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Members of the class Demospongiae are hermaphroditic. Life cycle: The zygote develops into parenchymella larva (free-swimming) before settling down on a substrate where it grows into a young sponge.
Collin, R., M.C. DÃaz, J. Norenburg, R.M. Rocha, J.A. SÃ¡nchez, M. Schulze, A. Schwartz and A. ValdÃ©s. 2005. (Ref. 415)
Variable growth forms: massive-amorphous, globular, thickly encrusting, flabellate or irregularly branching. Reddish-brown to grey externally; tan internally. Conulose surface: 0.1 - 0.2 cm cm high; 0.2 - 0.3 cm apart. Membrane-bearing oscules: 0.1 - 0.8 cm wide; with white or dark rims, scattered. Compressible; rubbery, extremely tough to be cut. Spicules absent (Ref. 415, 85482).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimates of some properties based on models
): 22.5 - 28, mean 25.5 (based on 336 cells; Ref. 115970
Low vulnerability (10 of 100)