Cephalopoda | Teuthida
Roper, C.F.E., M.J. Sweeney and C.E. Nauen. 1984. (Ref. 275)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 27.0 cm ML male/unsexed; (Ref. 275); 31 cm ML (female)
Pelagic; depth range 0 - 1000 m (Ref. 275)
Climate / Range
Tropical, preferred 21°C (Ref. 107945); 70°N - 26°N, 81°W - 2°W (Ref. 275)
Atlantic Ocean: British Isles north to Iceland and Greenland.
Maximum mantle length is 31cm (females) and 27cm (males) in the northern part of its distributional range, but 20 cm (females) and 18cm (males) in the southern part (Ref. 3722). Feeds on euphausiids, capelin, herring, juvenile mackerel (Ref. 275). Members of the class Cephalopoda are gonochoric. Male and female adults usually die shortly after spawning and brooding, respectively. Mating behavior: Males perform various displays to attract potential females for copulation. During copulation, male grasp the female and inserts the hectocotylus into the female's mantle cavity where fertilization usually occurs. Life cycle: Embryos hatch into planktonic stage and live for some time before they grow larger and take up a benthic existence as adults (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
FAO(fisheries: production) | FIRMS (Stock assessments) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us
Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models
Low vulnerability (23 of 100)