Cephalopoda | Teuthida
Roper, C.F.E., M.J. Sweeney and C.E. Nauen. 1984. (Ref. 275)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 33.0 cm ML male/unsexed; (Ref. 275)
Pelagic; depth range 0 - 800 m (Ref. 275), usually 50 - 200 m (Ref. 275)
Climate / Range
Subtropical, preferred 10°C (Ref. 107945); 20°S - 50°S, 68°W - 46°W (Ref. 275)
Southwest Atlantic, Southeast Pacific and Antarctic Indian Ocean. Subtropical to polar.
Members of the class Cephalopoda are gonochoric. Male and female adults usually die shortly after spawning and brooding, respectively. Mating behavior: Males perform various displays to attract potential females for copulation. During copulation, male grasp the female and inserts the hectocotylus into the female's mantle cavity where fertilization usually occurs. Life cycle: Embryos hatch into planktonic stage and live for some time before they grow larger and take up a benthic existence as adults (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
FAO(fisheries: production) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us
Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models
Low vulnerability (19 of 100)