Echinoidea | Echinoida
Jennings, S., J. Lancaster, A. Woolmer and J. Cotter. 1999. (Ref. 3123)
Size / Weight / Age
Benthic; depth range 3 - 1280 m (Ref. 85345)
Climate / Range
Temperate; 73°N - 59°S, 72°W - 173°W
Southwest Pacific, Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. Temperate and subtropical.
Circalittoral on sandy detrital bottom mixed with ooze (Ref. 106375). Occurs on organic detritus (Ref. 106379) and sandy silt substrata (Ref. 106379). Also on coralligenous habitat (Ref. 105982). Prefers to feed on brown algae Laminaria saccharina encrusted with the bryozoan Membranipora sp. based on experiment (Ref. 96310). Members of the class Echinoidea are gonochoric. Fertilization is external. Brooding is common, eggs are held either on the peristome, around the periproct or deep into the concavities on the petaloids. Life cycle: Embryos develop into planktotrophic larvae (echinoplateus) and live for several months before they sink to the bottom using their tube feet to adhere on the ground where they metamorphose into young urchins (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models