Polychaeta | Phyllodocida
Gusso, C.C., M.F. Gravina and F.R. Maggiore. 2001. (Ref. 2780)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 7.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7882)
Benthic; depth range 0 - 587 m (Ref. 107222)
Climate / Range
Northeast Atlantic, the Mediterranean and Indo-West Pacific.
Species' maximum length from the Belgian part of the North Sea (Ref. 7882). Inhabits sandy bottoms (Ref. 2780). Found mainly along the near-coastal zone, sporadically in the open sea, in fine to coarse sediment (Ref. 7882). Immature individuals are predators waiting for their prey while resting in their burrows or constructed tubes (Ref. 107221). Members of the class Polychaeta are mostly gonochoric (sexual). Mating: Females produce a pheromone attracting and signalling the males to shed sperm which in turn stimulates females to shed eggs, this behavior is known as swarming. Gametes are spawned through the metanephridia or body wall rupturing (termed as "epitoky", wherein a pelagic, reproductive individual, "epitoke", is formed from a benthic, nonreproductive individual, "atoke"). After fertilization, most eggs become planktonic; although some are retained in the worm tubes or burrowed in jelly masses attached to the tubes (egg brooders). Life Cycle: Eggs develop into trocophore larva, which later metamorph into juvenile stage (body lengthened), and later develop into adults (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models