Anthozoa | Alcyonacea
Cairns, S.D., D.R. Calder, A. Brinckmann-Voss, C.B. Castro, D.G. Fautin, P.R. Pugh, C.E. Mills, W.C. Jaap, M.N. Arai, S.H.D. Haddock and D.M. Opresko. 2003. (Ref. 1663)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 10.0 cm H male/unsexed; (Ref. 865)
Sessile; depth range 0 - 15 m (Ref. 865)
Climate / Range
Temperate Pacific and Atlantic Ocean, and the Arctic: USA and Canada. Mostly polar, but also in subtropical and boreal.
Size refers to colony height (Ref. 865). Known from intertidal to a depth of 15 meters, on offshore pinnacles or areas of strong currents (Ref. 865). Members of the class Anthozoa are either gonochoric or hermaphroditic. Mature gametes are shed into the coelenteron and spawned through the mouth. Life cycle: The zygote develops into a planktonic planula larva. Metamorphosis begins with early morphogenesis of tentacles, septa and pharynx before larval settlement on the aboral end (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models