Aves | Ciconiiformes
Environment / Climate / Range
Others; brackish. Tropical
Indo-Pacific, Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 43.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 8812); max. published weight: 290.00 g (Ref. 356)
Culmen: 4.1 cm; tarsus: 2.3 cm; wing: 33.0 cm.
Total Length: 35 to 43 cm; Wingspan: 86 to 103 cm (Ref. 8812). Total population is 55,000 pairs, mostly in Asia, 40,000 pairs. European population of about 6,800 to 160,000 pairs is declining due to loss of habitat (Ref. 84934). Surface seizing; coastal; coastal Islands (Ref. 356). Feeds by dipping to the sea surface with occasional plunge-dives. Breeds colonially in salt marshes, salt works, coastal dunes, islands and freshwater lagoons in southern North America, Caribbean, South America, Europe, Asia, Australia and northern Africa (Ref. 84934). Gull-billed terns are observed to display group adherence. This species has a high nest fidelity in stable habitats, and yet when environmental disasters occur, they retain their mates and settle with the same neighbors at the breeding locality (Ref. 87784).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Enticott, J. and D. Tipling. 1997. (Ref. 84934)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 12.1 - 29.1, mean 27.1 (based on 5421 cells).
Low to moderate vulnerability (33 of 100)