Scaphopoda | Gadilida
Steiner, G. and A.R. Kabat. 2004. (Ref. 1821)
Size / Weight / Age
Benthic; depth range 7 - 365 m (Ref. 1821)
Climate / Range
Western Atlantic: USA and Canada. Eastern Pacific: Alaska to Southern California.
Members of the class Scaphopoda are gonochoric. Fertilization occurs in the mantle cavity. Life cycle: Eggs hatch into free-swimming lecithotrophic trochophore larvae, succeeded by shelled veligers (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models