Aves | Charadriiformes
Harding, A.M.A., J.F. Piatt and K.C. Hamer. 2003. (Ref. 6483)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 41.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 8812); max. published weight: 619.00 g (Ref. 356)
Climate / Range
Pacific Ocean and the Arctic. Subtropical to polar.
Culmen: 4.83 cm; tarsus: 3.07 cm; wing: 18.97 cm.
Total Length: 36 to 41 cm; Wingspan: 56 to 58 cm (Ref. 8812). With sperm-storage glands allowing delayed fertilization of ovum (Ref. 87784). Plunge diver; continental shelf; <100 km (Ref. 356). As in all seabirds, copulation takes place ashore and the presence sperm-storage glands allow delayed fertilization of ovum out at sea. Vulnerable to oil spill as a piscivore; saw 50% decline in population from 1989 in Prince William Sound after the Exxon Valdez oil spill (Ref. 87784).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
| FisheriesWiki |
Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models
Low to moderate vulnerability (31 of 100)