Aves | Charadriiformes
Gjerdrum, C. 2004. (Ref. 80101)
Size / Weight / Age
max. published weight: 779.00 g (Ref. 356)
Climate / Range
Pacific Ocean. Subtropical to Boreal.
Culmen: 5.84 cm; tarsus: 3.61 cm; wing: 20.055 cm.
Plunge diver; continental shelf; <100 km (Ref. 356). Semi-precocial mode of development. Ground nesting species; in burrows. When spotting a threat, adults give out alarm calls to warn chicks who respond by moving to a nearby hiding place. Displays "group flight" behavior. Vulnerable to oil pollution as a piscivore; saw 50% decline in population from 1989 in Prince William Sound after the Exxon Valdez oil spill (Ref. 87784).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models