Aves | Ciconiiformes
Environment / Climate / Range
Indo-West Pacific: Australia and New Zealand. Subtropical to temperate.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 40.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 91362); max. published weight: 2.1 kg (Ref. 356)
This is a gregarious species that nests in burrows, hollows under bushes or rocks, and is observed to return to land during dusk (Ref. 91362). It is observed to be nocturnal on land (Ref. 84934). Pursuit diving (Ref. 91362). Life cycle: Eggs are incubated for 5 to 6 weeks and develop into fledgelings at 8 weeks of age. Clutches are laid twice a year (Ref. 115255).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Life cycle: Eggs are incubated for 5 to 6 weeks and develop into fledgelings at 8 weeks of age. Clutches are laid twice a year.
Harrison, P. 1987. (Ref. 91362)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
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Estimates of some properties based on models