Aves | Ciconiiformes
Harrison, P. 1987. (Ref. 91362)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 67.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 84934); max. published weight: 5.4 kg (Ref. 356)
Climate / Range
Indo-West Pacific, Southwest Atlantic and the Antarctic. Subtropical to polar.
Culmen: 5.55 cm; tarsus: 2.4 cm.
Total population is estimated at 200,00 pairs, currently stable. This is a gregarious species, that breeds in large colonies in rocky coasts (Ref. 91362). Pursuit diving (Ref. 356).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models