Aves | Ciconiiformes
Harrison, P. 1987. (Ref. 91362)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 70.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 91362); common length : 70.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 8812); max. published weight: 4.6 kg (Ref. 356)
Climate / Range
Southeast Pacific, Southwest Atlantic and the Antarctic. Temperate to polar.
Culmen: 5.77 cm; tarsus: 2.62 cm.
Total population is over 11,650,000 pairs, and with an increasing trend (Ref. 84934). This is a gregarious, noisy and aggressive species. It breeds in large colonies but smaller ones may be found in Rockhopper rookeries (Ref. 91362). Pursuit diving (Ref. 356).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models