Bivalvia | Veneroida
Environment / Climate / Range
Benthic; brackish; depth range 0 - 73 m (Ref. 104365). Temperate, preferred 12°C (Ref. 107945); 46°N - 18°N, 91°W - 59°W
Western Atlantic Ocean: from Nova Scotia, Canada to Florida and southern Gulf of Mexico to Campeche, Mexico. Introduced in the Northeast Atlantic from UK (England and Wales), the North Sea to southern Norway and southern Baltic Sea to Spain in the southern Bay of Biscay. Tropical to temperate.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 26.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 7726)
Comprise communities and assemblages throughout the Mid-Atlantic Bight (Ref. 80354). Inhabits littoral and sublittoral sediment (Ref. 1314). Found in areas influenced by estuarine outflows (Ref. 96507). Swims backward (Ref. 80328). Members of the class Bivalvia are mostly gonochoric, some are protandric hermaphrodites. Life cycle: Embryos develop into free-swimming trocophore larvae, succeeded by the bivalve veliger, resembling a miniature clam (Ref. 833).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Members of the class Bivalvia are mostly gonochoric, some are protandric hermaphrodites. Life cycle: Embryos develop into free-swimming trocophore larvae, succeeded by the bivalve veliger, resembling a miniature clam.
Harvey-Clark, C. 1997. (Ref. 7726)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
FAO(fisheries: production) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 4.1 - 26, mean 9.7 (based on 362 cells).
Low vulnerability (16 of 100)