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Enhydrina schistosa   Daudin, 1803

beaked sea snake

Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Enhydrina schistosa   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Classification Common names | Synonyms | CoL | ITIS | WoRMS

Reptilia | Squamata | Hydrophiidae

Main reference References | Biblio | Coordinator | Collaborators

Redfield, J.A., J.C. Holmes and R.D. Holmes. 1978. (Ref. 78387)

Size / Weight / Age

Max length : 140 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 801); common length : 110 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 801)


Reef-associated; depth range 3 - 22 m (Ref. 78387)

Climate / Range

Tropical; 31°N - 58°S (Ref. 356)

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Indo-West Pacific.

Short description

Young has gray to black annuli, while juveniles has 45-55 transverse bars that may extend down the flanks with the lower body whitish and without pattern. Adults are uniform gray above, whitish below. Dark bars wider or as wide than paler interspaces.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Average length is 90 cm. The venom of this snake is said to be responsible for more serious and fatal bites than all other sea snakes combined and is considered to have the most toxic venom. Based on studies, the myotoxic phospholipase A from the venom causes myoglobinuria in mice (Ref. 88062). Usually occurs in clear shallow reef waters (Ref. 2357), and may travel about ten miles up tidal rivers (Ref. 88062). Also prefers estuarine conditions in Australia (Ref. 2357). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 801), with 4 to 9 young ones in a brood (Ref. 88062). Feeds on fish (Refs. 801, 88062). Ovoviviparous (Ref. 801). It bears 4 to 9 young ones in a brood (Ref. 88062).

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)

CITES status (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

  Venomous (Ref. 88062)

Human uses

Fisheries: of no interest
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More information

FAO areas
Food items
Common names
Egg development
Mass conversion

Internet sources

BHL | BOLD Systems | Check for other websites | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | DiscoverLife | FAO(Publication : search) | GenBank (genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | ispecies | National databases | PubMed | Scirus | FishBase | Tree of Life | uBio | uBio RSS | Wikipedia (Go, Search) | Zoological Record

Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models

Vulnerability (Ref. 71543)
Moderate vulnerability (39 of 100)
Price category (Ref. 80766)