Cephalopoda | Octopoda
Roper, C.F.E., M.J. Sweeney and C.E. Nauen. 1984. (Ref. 275)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 15.8 cm ML male/unsexed; (Ref. 108984); 19.1 cm ML (female); max. published weight: 1.2 kg (Ref. 275)
Demersal; depth range 0 - 770 m (Ref. 2175), usually 50 - 300 m (Ref. 2630)
Climate / Range
Subtropical, preferred 18°C (Ref. 107945); 70°N - 30°N, 26°W - 22°E (Ref. 275)
Northeast Atlantic and the Mediterranean.
Maximum length expressed as dorsal mantle length and is based on occurrence (Ref. 108984); to be replaced with a better reference. Females predominate at depths of 30 to 80 m, males at depths below 100 m (Ref. 275). Male spermatangia reach ovary before the release of sperms (Ref. 2569). Also Ref. 80232.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
Fisheries: highly commercial
FAO(fisheries: production) | FisheriesWiki | Sea Around Us
Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models
Low to moderate vulnerability (30 of 100)