Bisby, F.A., M.A. Ruggiero, K.L. Wilson, M. Cachuela-Palacio, S.W. Kimani, Y.R. Roskov, A. Soulier-Perkins and J. van Hertum. 2005. (Ref. 19)
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Size / Weight / Age
Climate / Range
Mid-dorsal spines on segments 6 to 10. Lateral spines on segments 4, 7 to 12 with adhesive glands at the base of L-4 and L-7. Lateral terminal spines: long, between 164 to 192 um, 53.8 to 66.7% of trunk length; slightly shorter in males. Lateral accessory spines absent. Males lack lateral accessory spines but three pairs of penile spines are present. Fine cuticular hairs appear to be present but perforation site are notably absent (Ref. 1409).
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models