Pycnogonida | Pantopoda
Child, C.A. 1995. (Ref. 170)
Size / Weight / Age
Demersal; depth range 0 - 2200 m (Ref. 170)
Climate / Range
Southeast Pacific, Southwest and Atlantic Antarctic.
Maximum depth is questionable; will be replaced with better reference. Found on upper sublittoral between 10 to 40 m depths (Ref. 92908) and deep sea at 100 to at least 2000 m depths (Ref. 87643). Members of the class Pycnogonida are gonochoric and sexually dimorphic. During copulation, male usually suspends itself beneath the female. Fertilization occurs as the eggs leave the female's ovigers. Males brood the egg masses until they hatch. Life cycle: Eggs hatch into protonymphon larva then to adults (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models