Aves | Ciconiiformes
Environment / Climate / Range
Others; brackish. Temperate
Pacific Ocean and Western Indian Ocean: Kermadec Island, Iran and Saudi Arabia.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Long-distance, transoceanic migrant; rarely touch water during migration; migration associated with favorable wind patterns where overwater routes are more energy efficient than coastal paths. Shorebirds from the North Atlantic typically fly >2000 km, mostly over water. Those breeding in northeast Ellesmere Island, Canada, possibly fly over parts of the Arctic Ocean north of Greenland, south through Iceland and unto Britain and continental Europe; following a rhumb line route as do populations migrating between Siberia and western Europe. North from South America, migrates across the Gulf of Mexico generally in spring when wind conditions are favorable; central Yucatan and northern Venezuela as major jumping off points. May migrate across the Gulf of Guinea en route to southern Africa. Human competition for food by the commercial harvest of horseshoe crabs (Limulus polyphemus) at Delaware Bay, New Jersey (eastern US) threaten survival of populations that fatten by foraging on horseshoe crab eggs during spring migrations to northern breeding grounds (Ref. 87784). Outside of its breeding season, it is frequently seen on tidal mudflats or sandflats, sandy beaches, rocky shelves, bays, lagoons, harbours and occasionally on oceanic beaches and salt marshes (Ref. 107888).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Oliver, W.R.B. 1912. (Ref. 89447)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
| FishSource |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 3.6 - 14.9, mean 8.9 (based on 1398 cells).