Aves | Ciconiiformes
Gaydos, J.K. and S.F. Pearson. 2011. (Ref. 93905)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 23.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 94965)
Others; freshwater; brackish
Climate / Range
Pacific, Atlantic and Western Indian Ocean.
Biotic pollution from ship ballast water resulting in the spread of the plant Spartina anglica traced to decline of this species particularly on estuaries where it limits this shorebird's habitat use (Ref. 87784). Feeds on crustaceans, molluscs, polychaetes and insects as well as plant matter (Ref. 108096).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models