Aves | Ciconiiformes
Oliver, W.R.B. 1912. (Ref. 89447)
Size / Weight / Age
Climate / Range
Pacific Ocean: Kermadec Islands.
A wader; feeds in marshes and floodplains; breeds near river lowlands (Ref. 95154). Highly omnivorous. The Hunter estuary saltmarsh and intertidal mudflats, south-eastern Australia, identified as feeding and roosting ground for non-breeding birds; where they feed during the day and roost at night; from where they migrate to Alaska, Siberia, Mongolia, northern China or Japan to breed each season. Overwintering birds preyed on by raptors in this region; non-breeding plumage provide good camouflage in the saltmarsh; observed flattening themselves against vegetation when raptors are overhead; when sensing threat, vocalizes warning alarm calls to alert the flock. Population decline linked to coastal developments that compromise their saltmarsh habitat (Ref. 95283).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models