Gastropoda | Neogastropoda
Bisby, F.A., M.A. Ruggiero, K.L. Wilson, M. Cachuela-Palacio, S.W. Kimani, Y.R. Roskov, A. Soulier-Perkins and J. van Hertum. 2005. (Ref. 19)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 20.1 cm DL male/unsexed; (Ref. 83435)
Benthic; brackish; depth range 0 - 114 m (Ref. 83435)
Climate / Range
Temperate; 42°N - 28°N, 81°W - 69°W (Ref. 83435)
Western Atlantic and Eastern Central Pacific: USA; from Cape Cod, Massachusetts to Cape Canaveral Florida (Ref. 101514). Introduced to San Francisco Bay, CA. Subtropical to temperate.
Maximum depth from Ref. 104442. On intertidal flats and seaside lagoons (Ref. 104331). Inhabits sand and sand-mud bottoms, often entirely buried in sediments. Sometimes seen on mussel or oyster beds while foraging. Active at low light, mostly at night during summer months. Both an active predator and scavenger. Capable of readily detecting food in its vicinity (Ref. 101546) by sensing the water the prey pumps out (Ref. 105269). Primarily feeds on bivalves (Ref. 101546) such as mussels and oysters (Ref. 105269). Copulation is evident. Life cycle: Embryos develop into planktonic trocophore larvae and later into juvenile veligers before becoming fully grown adults (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
| FisheriesWiki |
Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models