Aves | Anseriformes
Environment / Climate / Range
Others; freshwater. Polar
Northern Atlantic and Eastern Pacific: Southern Alaska to California. Subtropical to Polar.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cmmax. published weight: 910.00 g (Ref. 356)
Coastal. Exhibits surface diving and dabbling behavior (Ref. 356). Inhabits the littoral zone. Winters in estuaries. Breeds inland in boreal forests. Undergoes molting migration. Molting birds are found in coastal saltwaters, estuaries, rich shallow freshwater lakes (in the Yukon), in brackish waters of fjords and rich shallow coastal lakes surrounded by open water (in Denmark), rocky foreshores (in Ungava Bay). Population threats include oil spills and toxic chemical contamination, logging, fish introductions in breeding lakes, and hunting (Ref. 95145).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
SAUP Database. 2006. (Ref. 356)
Culmen: 3.185 cm; tarsus: 4.05 cm; wing: 22.75 cm.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
| FisheriesWiki |
Estimates of some properties based on models
): 3.5 - 12.2, mean 8.3 (based on 879 cells; Ref. 115970