Echinoidea | Spatangoida
Harms, J. 1993. (Ref. 2711)
Size / Weight / Age
max. reported age: 4 years (Ref. 2823)
Benthic; depth range 4 - 1500 m (Ref. 85345)
Climate / Range
Northeast Atlantic and the Mediterranean: Europe. Temperate and subtropical.
A subsurface deposit feeder (Ref. 96501). Found offshore at a depth of 80 m (Ref. 2823). Members of the class Echinoidea are gonochoric. Fertilization is external. Brooding is common, eggs are held either on the peristome, around the periproct or deep into the concavities on the petaloids. Life cycle: Embryos develop into planktotrophic larvae (echinoplateus) and live for several months before they sink to the bottom using their tube feet to adhere on the ground where they metamorphose into young urchins (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models