Cephalochordata | Not assigned
Environment / Climate / Range
Demersal; depth range 10 - 15 m (Ref. 1441). Subtropical
Indo-West Pacific: East Africa (Ref. 1492). Climate: tropical to temperate.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 5.5 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1478)
Found in medium coarse brown sand with shell fragments and very small proportion of mud to very fine sand with large proportion of mud (Ref. 1482). Occurs in the intertidal zone (Ref. 1478). Members of the class Cephalochordata are gonochoric. Life cycle: Eggs develop into planktotrophic larva and later on to benthic adults (Ref. 833).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Members of the class Cephalochordata are gonochoric. Life cycle: Eggs develop into planktotrophic larva and later on to benthic adults.
Stokes, M.D. and N.D. Holland. 1996. (Ref. 1437)
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)
CITES status (Ref. 108899)
Threat to humans
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Estimates of some properties based on models
Low vulnerability (10 of 100)