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Bonellia viridis   Rolando, 1821

green spoon worm

Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Bonellia viridis   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Image of Bonellia viridis (green spoon worm)
Bonellia viridis
Picture by Pillon, Roberto

Classification / Names Common names | Synonyms | CoL | ITIS | WoRMS

Not assigned | Not assigned | Bonelliidae

Environment / Climate / Range Ecology

Demersal.  Subtropical

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Northeast Atlantic and the Mediterranean: Sweden, Norway, Ireland and Malta.

Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age

Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 15.0 cm TL male/unsexed; (Ref. 358)

Short description Morphology

The worm is provided with an appendix; is located on the head; or misleads, which, deployed, conferred on the species a size of about 150 cm, forked in its end, of a scale of 50 cm and whose edges are corrugated. Body: plum shape; 15 cm length. Males and females have an extremely different morphology. The males: 0.1- 0.3 cm length: they have neither horn nor intestine; and live in parasite in the esophagus of the female: only one can lodge some up to 85 (Ref. 358).

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Infralittoral zone; lives on hard bottoms, (Ref. 772) in anfractuosities and excavations on hard funds, interstices between stones and rollers. Females always seen occupying anfractuosities of rocks or all other benthic niche. For nourishment, they use horns equipped to palpate ground and consume microorganisms or organic matter of various origins. Nutritive particle coated with mucus before being introduced (Ref. 358). Sex of the larvae swimmer not given of start: if one larva comes into contact with horn of female, it is introduced as food particle; inside body of this female, hormonal processes make larva evolve into nanifié male. If on the contrary it manages to take refuge in anfractuosities, larva evolves into female. This mode of development guarantees a balanced population (Ref. 358). Habitat: Anfractuosities and excavations on hard funds, interstices between the stones and rollers. Biology: at the Bonellia kind, the sexual dimorphism is very marked: males and females have an extremely different morphology. It is always the female of the species which one sees in nature, occupying an anfractuosities of the rock or all other benthic niche. To nourish themselves: Uses the horn equipped to palpate the ground and to consume of them the micro-organisms or the organic matter of various origins. Nutritive particles: Coated with mucus before being introduced. The disturbed animal retracts this body completely. The males: 0.1 to 0.3 cm length: they have neither horn nor intestine; female: only one can lodge some up to 85 (Ref. 358). Lives on hard bottoms in the infralittoral zone (Ref. 772). The sex of the larvae swimmer is not given of start: if one as of the these larvae comes into contact with the horn of a female, it will be introduced as well as a food particle; inside the body of this female, hormonal processes make evolve/move this larva in nanifié male. If on the contrary it manages to take refuge in an anfractuosities, the larva evolves/moves in female. This mode of development guarantees a balanced population (Ref. 358).

Life cycle and mating behavior Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae

The sex of the larvae swimmer is not given of start: if one as of the these larvae comes into contact with the horn of a female, it will be introduced as well as a food particle; inside the body of this female, hormonal processes make evolve/move this larva in nanifié male. If on the contrary it manages to take refuge in an anfractuosities, the larva evolves/moves in female. This mode of development guarantees a balanced population (Ref. 358).

Main reference References | Coordinator | Collaborators

Göthel, H. 1992. (Ref. 358)

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 115185)

CITES status (Ref. 108899)

Not Evaluated

CMS (Ref. 116361)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

Human uses


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More information

Countries
FAO areas
Ecosystems
Occurrences
Introductions
Stocks
Ecology
Diet
Food items
Common names
Synonyms
Predators
Reproduction
Maturity
Spawning
Fecundity
Eggs
Egg development
Age/Size
Growth
Length-weight
Length-length
Morphology
Larvae
Abundance
References
Mass conversion

Internet sources

BHL | BOLD Systems | CISTI | DiscoverLife | FAO(Publication : search) | GenBank (genome, nucleotide) | GloBI | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | ispecies | PubMed | Scirus | Tree of Life | uBio | uBio RSS | Wikipedia (Go, Search) | Zoological Record

Estimates of some properties based on models

Vulnerability (Ref. 71543)
Low vulnerability (10 of 100)
Price category (Ref. 80766)
Unknown