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Bolitaena pygmaea   (Verrill, 1884)

pygmy pelagic octopod

Native range | All suitable habitat | Point map | Year 2100
This map was computer-generated and has not yet been reviewed.
Bolitaena pygmaea   AquaMaps   Data sources: GBIF OBIS
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Classification Common names | Synonyms | CoL | ITIS | WoRMS

Cephalopoda | Octopoda | Bolitaenidae

Main reference References | Biblio | Coordinator | Collaborators

Turgeon, D.D., J.F. Quinn Jr., A.E. Bogan, E.V. Coan, F.G. Hochberg, W.G. Lyons, P.M. Mikkelsen, R.J. Neves, C.F.E. Roper, G. Rosenberg, B. Roth, A. Scheltema, F.G. Thompson, M. Vecchione and J.D. Willams. 1998. (Ref. 1667)

Size / Weight / Age

Max length : 6.0 cm ML male/unsexed; (Ref. 96968)

Environment

Pelagic; depth range 100 - 1400 m (Ref. 96968)

Climate / Range

Subtropical

Distribution Countries | FAO areas | Ecosystems | Occurrences | Introductions

Indo-Pacific, Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean. Subtropical to subtropical.

Biology     Glossary (e.g. epibenthic)

Depth range from 100 to 1,400 m. These small pelagic octopuses typically live over deeper water. Young animals tend to occur in the shallower end of the range. As members of this species reach sexual maturity the iridescence of the digestive gland and eyes is lost and animals migrate to deeper darker waters. Pigmentation greatly increases in females as they mature and the arms become relatively longer. Increased pigmentation may be associated with the need to mask output from the female's circumoral light organ. This light organ may be used for reproductive signalling to males. The posterior salivary glands of mature males are greatly enlarged and have been suggested to produce a chemical attractant for females (Ref. 96968). Members of the class Cephalopoda are gonochoric. Male and female adults usually die shortly after spawning and brooding, respectively. Mating behavior: Males perform various displays to attract potential females for copulation. During copulation, male grasp the female and inserts the hectocotylus into the female's mantle cavity where fertilization usually occurs. Life cycle: Embryos hatch into planktonic stage and live for some time before they grow larger and take up a benthic existence as adults (Ref. 833).

IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)

CITES status (Ref. 94142)

Not Evaluated

Threat to humans

Human uses


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Mass conversion

Internet sources

BHL | BOLD Systems | Check for other websites | Check FishWatcher | CISTI | DiscoverLife | FAO(Publication : search) | GenBank (genome, nucleotide) | GOBASE | Google Books | Google Scholar | Google | ispecies | National databases | PubMed | Scirus | FishBase | Tree of Life | uBio | uBio RSS | Wikipedia (Go, Search) | Zoological Record

Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models

Price category (Ref. 80766)
Unknown