Cephalopoda | Teuthida
Turgeon, D.D., J.F. Quinn Jr., A.E. Bogan, E.V. Coan, F.G. Hochberg, W.G. Lyons, P.M. Mikkelsen, R.J. Neves, C.F.E. Roper, G. Rosenberg, B. Roth, A. Scheltema, F.G. Thompson, M. Vecchione and J.D. Willams. 1998. (Ref. 1667)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 20.0 cm ML male/unsexed; (Ref. 97142)
Pelagic; depth range 0 - 2000 m (Ref. 97142)
Climate / Range
Indo-Pacific and Atlantic Ocean.
Extremely broadly distributed in all oceans in tropical and subtropical zones; in the Atlantic known from 35° to 45°N to 35° to 40°S. Vertical range extends from subsurface epipelagic depths as paralarvae and undergoes very clear ontogenetic descent through the mesopelagic zone and into the bathypelagic waters to in excess of 2 000 m (Ref. 97142). Members of the class Cephalopoda are gonochoric. Male and female adults usually die shortly after spawning and brooding, respectively. Mating behavior: Males perform various displays to attract potential females for copulation. During copulation, male grasp the female and inserts the hectocotylus into the female's mantle cavity where fertilization usually occurs. Life cycle: Embryos hatch into planktonic stage and live for some time before they grow larger and take up a benthic existence as adults (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models