Pycnogonida | Pantopoda
Environment / Climate / Range
Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean and Northwest Pacific. Subtropical to temperate.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm
Coastal to slope (Ref. 19). Feed on: polyzoan Flustra foliacea (also associated with), and Dynamena pumila (Ref. 12). Method of feeding: proboscis into operculum (Ref. 234). Reproductive system: Genital opening lacks operculum positioned at the tip of a protuberance (Figure 18g) (Ref. 12).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Reproductive system: Genital opening lacks operculum positioned at the tip of a protuberance (Figure 18g) (Ref. 12).
King, P.E. 1973. (Ref. 12)
Female palps and chelifores: smaller than male. Proboscis: Lacks chelifores, and proboscis capable of considerable movement at the region of the 'soft collar'. Proboscis may be directed downwards at right angles to the main axis of the body or even in a more ventro-posterior direction than this. The mouth at the tip of the proboscis is reradiate structure which usually has three lip-lobes and sometimes consist of smooth cuticle. Thrusts the tip of its proboscis through the operculum of the bryozoan Flustra foliacea and feed on the animal within.
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimates of some properties based on models
): 9.9 - 14, mean 11.5 (based on 237 cells; Ref. 115970