Pycnogonida | Pantopoda
Environment / Climate / Range
Reef-associated; depth range 0 - 910 m (Ref. 9). Subtropical
Indo-Pacific and Southwest Atlantic. Tropical to temperate.
Length at first maturity / Size / Weight / Age
Maturity: Lm ?  range ? - ? cm Max length : 0.1 cm TRKL male/unsexed; (Ref. 1666)
Among intertidal tufts of Cladophora prolifera; in coral reefs (Ref. 1666), until to a depth of at least 250 m (Ref. 92910). Inhabits hyrodozoan trees, stones, dead corals and red algae (Ref. 92908). Members of the class Pycnogonida are gonochoric and sexually dimorphic. During copulation, male usually suspends itself beneath the female. Fertilization occurs as the eggs leave the female's ovigers. Males brood the egg masses until they hatch. Life cycle: Eggs hatch into protonymphon larva then to adults (Ref. 833).
Life cycle and mating behavior
Maturity | Reproduction | Spawning | Eggs | Fecundity | Larvae
Members of the class Pycnogonida are gonochoric and sexually dimorphic. During copulation, male usually suspends itself beneath the female. Fertilization occurs as the eggs leave the female's ovigers. Males brood the egg masses until they hatch. Life cycle: Eggs hatch into protonymphon larva then to adults.
Child, C.A. 1998. (Ref. 9)
Trunk: suture lines complete, partial or lacking. 2 or more dorsomedian tubercles on trunk with or without similar tubercles on abdomen. Lateral processes: broad, more or less contiguous, with distal tubercles which differs in size and number. Proboscis: a slender ovoid as long as trunk. Chelifores: 2-segmented, scape longer than usual, with short dorsodistal tubercles or without. Chelae: tiny nubs, atrophied in adults. Palps: 8 segmented. Ovigers: 10 segmented, smaller in females, armed with 1-2 denticulate spines per distal 3 segments. Legs: slender, with or without low to tall tubercles, mostly dorsal if present. Male femur with 1 dorsodistal cement gland pore. Propodus: well curved, with 3-4 larger heel spines, 7-8 smaller sole spines, robust claw and stout auxiliaries of varying lengths (Ref. 9).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimates of some properties based on models
): 4.8 - 21.1, mean 12.5 (based on 1241 cells; Ref. 115970
Low vulnerability (10 of 100)