Cephalopoda | Teuthida
Turgeon, D.D., J.F. Quinn Jr., A.E. Bogan, E.V. Coan, F.G. Hochberg, W.G. Lyons, P.M. Mikkelsen, R.J. Neves, C.F.E. Roper, G. Rosenberg, B. Roth, A. Scheltema, F.G. Thompson, M. Vecchione and J.D. Willams. 1998. (Ref. 1667)
Size / Weight / Age
Max length : 4.0 cm ML male/unsexed; (Ref. 2446)
Pelagic; depth range 1 - 900 m (Ref. 105689)
Climate / Range
Tropical; 65°N - 31°S, 98°W - 37°E
Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
Pelagic. Carries out vertical daily migrations (Ref. 104404). At bottom in bathyal and in midwater above slopes, occasionally to surface at night time (Ref. 97142). Exhibits counterillumination, a common form of crypsis in the open ocean (Ref. 106088 ). Feeds on plankton accumulated around lights at night over deep reef (Ref. 106988). Members of the class Cephalopoda are gonochoric. Male and female adults usually die shortly after spawning and brooding, respectively. Mating behavior: Males perform various displays to attract potential females for copulation. During copulation, male grasp the female and inserts the hectocotylus into the female's mantle cavity where fertilization usually occurs. Life cycle: Embryos hatch into planktonic stage and live for some time before they grow larger and take up a benthic existence as adults (Ref. 833).
IUCN Red List Status (Ref. 114614)
CITES status (Ref. 94142)
Threat to humans
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Estimation of some characteristics with mathematical models
Low vulnerability (10 of 100)